Spiraling up from the ground, the remaining minaret of the Great Mosque of Samarra is the the most prominent of the remaining structures of a mosque that was once the largest in the world. Tensions arose between Sunnis and the Shi'a during the Iraq War. The average annual temperature in Samarra is 22.7 °C (72.9 °F). The reign of al-Mutawakkil had a great effect on the appearance of the city, for he seemed to have been a lover of architecture, and the one responsible for building the great Mosque of Samarra. In June 2014, the city was attacked by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) as part of the Northern Iraq offensive. The Great Mosque of Samarra was, for a time, the largest mosque in the world; its minaret, the Malwiya Tower, is a spiralling cone 52 metres (171 ft) high and 33 metres (108 ft) wide with a spiral ramp. During the 20th century, Samarra gained new importance when a permanent lake, Lake Tharthar, was created through the construction of the Samarra Barrage, which was built in order to prevent the frequent flooding of Baghdad. The remains of prehistoric Samarra were first excavated between 1911 and 1914 by the German archaeologist Ernst Herzfeld. Samarra (Arabic: سَامَرَّاء‎, Sāmarrāʾ) is a city in Iraq. The swastika in the center of the design is a reconstruction.[4]. It lasted from 5,500 BCE and eventually collapsed in 3,900 BCE. Furthermore, from the study of the Great Mosque of Samarra also proved how the decoration spared to the other parts in the world. The Samarra bowl at the Pergamon Museum, Berlin. Most rain falls in the winter. Its population returned to Baghdad and the city rapidly declined. Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Explosion Topples Minarets At Iraqi Shi'ite Shrine", "Several Mosques Attacked, but Iraq Is Mostly Calm - New York Times", "Iraqi police say famous shrine attacked", "Iraq dislodges insurgents from city of Samarra with airstrikes", Ernst Herzfeld Papers, Series 7: Records of Samarra Expeditions, 1906–1945, Iraq Image - Samarra Satellite Observation, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Samarra&oldid=972525693#History, Articles needing additional references from May 2009, All articles needing additional references, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 12 August 2020, at 14:42. Though Samarra is famous for its Shi'i holy sites, including the tombs of several Shi'i Imams, the town was traditionally and until very recently, dominated by Sunni Arabs. On June 13, 2007, insurgents attacked the mosque again and destroyed the two minarets that flanked the dome's ruins. British Museum. The city is also home to al-Askari Shrine, containing the mausolea of the Imams Ali al-Hadi and Hasan al-Askari, the tenth and eleventh Shiʿi Imams, respectively, as well as the place from where Muhammad al-Mahdi, known as the "Hidden Imam", reportedly went into The Occultation in the belief of the Twelver or Shias. In the eighteenth century, one of the most violent battles of the 1730–1735 Ottoman–Persian War, the Battle of Samarra, took place, where over 50,000 Turks and Persians became casualties. Location : Samarra, Iraq. Although quite often called Mamluk slave soldiers, their status was quite elevated; some of their commanders bore Sogdian titles of nobility.[5]. In 2003 the city had an estimated population of 348,700. To celebrate the completion of this project, a commemorative tower (modern Burj al-Qa'im) was built at the southern inlet south of Samarra, and a palace with a "paradise" or walled hunting park was constructed at the northern inlet (modern Nahr ar-Rasasi) near ad-Dawr. It stands on the east bank of the Tigris in the Saladin Governorate, 125 kilometers (78 mi) north of Baghdad. This article is about the city in Iraq. No organization claimed responsibility for the bombing. ISIL forces captured the municipality building and university, but were later repulsed.[12]. The Mosque of Abu Dulaf became the new congregational mosque, serving the Great Mosque in Samarra during this brief two-year period. The civilization flourished alongside the Ubaid period, as one of the first town states in the Near East. [7] On July 12, 2007, the clock tower was blown up. In addition, Hakimah and Narjis, female relatives of the Prophet Muhammad and the Imams, held in high esteem by Muslims, are buried there, making this mosque one of the most significant sites of worship. Its field of ruins is the only world metropolis of late antiquity which is available for serious archaeology. Samarra is a key city in Saladin Governorate, a major part of the so-called Sunni Triangle where insurgents were active during the Iraq War. [1] In 2007, UNESCO named Samarra one of its World Heritage Sites.[2]. At the time of its construction, it was one of the largest in the world. The possibility of a larger population was offered by the opening of the Qatul al-Kisrawi, the northern extension of the Nahrawan Canal which drew water from the Tigris in the region of Samarra, attributed by Yaqut al-Hamawi (Muʿjam, see under "Qatul") to Khosrau I (531–578). The Great Mosque of Samarra. Materials : baked bricks, clay, walls were panelled with mosaics of dark blue glass. The Great Mosque of al-Mutawakkil was commissioned by the Abbasid caliph Al-Mutawakkil. During the sectarian violence in Iraq (2006–07), Samarra was in the "Sunni Triangle" of violence. The first mosque in Samarra was built in 836, but it was replaced between 848 and 852 by the Great Mosque of al-Mutawakkil. A supplementary canal, the Qatul Abi al-Jund, excavated by the Abbasid Caliph Harun al-Rashid, was commemorated by a planned city laid out in the form of a regular octagon (modern Husn al-Qadisiyya), called al-Mubarak and abandoned unfinished in 796. It stands on the east bank of the Tigris in the Saladin Governorate, 125 kilometers (78 mi) north of Baghdad. Since 1946, the notebooks, letters, unpublished excavation reports and photographs have been in the Freer Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C. In the mihrab used marble and gold. Name of Building : The Great Mosque of Samarra. For the village in Iran, see. [citation needed]. Distinguished Feature : The Malwiya Minaret [Spiral minaret] - the spiraling cone is … Here he built extensive palace complexes surrounded by garrison settlements for his guards, mostly drawn from Central Asia and Iran (most famously the Turks, as well as the Khurasani Ishtakhaniyya, Faraghina and Ushrusaniyya regiments) or North Africa (like the Maghariba). Samarra was once in the "Sunni Triangle" of violence during the sectarian violence in Iraq (2006–07). On February 22, 2006, the golden dome of the al-Askari Mosque was bombed, setting off a period of rioting and reprisal attacks across the country which claimed hundreds of lives. The snail shell minaret covered 42 acres as its peak and 108 feet wide with a … For his son al-Mu'tazz he built the large palace Bulkuwara. Many local people were displaced by the dam, resulting in an increase in Samarra's population. About 171 mm (6.73 in) of precipitation falls annually. Ancient place names for Samarra noted by the Samarra Archaeological Survey are Greek Souma (Ptolemy V.19, Zosimus III, 30), Latin Sumere, a fort mentioned during the retreat of the army of Julian in 363 AD (Ammianus Marcellinus XXV, 6, 4), and Syriac Sumra (Hoffmann, Auszüge, 188; Michael the Syrian, III, 88), described as a village. Samarra remained the residence of the caliph until 892, when al-Mu'tadid eventually returned to Baghdad. During the long decline of the Abbasid empire, Samarra was largely abandoned starting in AD 940. For the city in Russia, see, "Samarrah" redirects here. This has made it an important pilgrimage centre for the Imami Shias. Freed, "Research Pitfalls as a Result of the Restoration of Museum Specimens". Chinese-made sancai pottery shard, 9th–10th century, found in Samarra, an example of Chinese influences on Islamic pottery. The materials used in the great mosque of Samarra mixed sun-dried brick and baked brick, and the roof was made by wood. A city of Sur-marrati (refounded by Sennacherib in 690 BC according to a stele in the Walters Art Museum) is insecurely identified with a fortified Assyrian site of Assyrian at al-Huwaysh on the Tigris opposite modern Samarra. [10][11], Ever since the end of Iraqi civil war in 2007, the Shia population of the holy city has increased exponentially. [8] He stated that he believed no Sunni Arab could have been behind the attack, though according to the New York Times the attackers were likely Sunnis linked to Al-Qaeda.

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